Friday, December 2, 2016

Attend In Person or Virtually APPAM/MDRC Institutional Member Forum!

MDRC’s Center for Applied Behavioral Science (CABS) and APPAM are hosting a forum on December 13, 2016 which will explore the future of behavioral science research, practice, and policy. This event, held in DC, brings together distinguished experts from MDRC, academia, and the government to share their work and provide insight on next steps for research, practice, and policy.

PRINT PAGE

Preview of the Winter 2013 JPAM

January 7, 2013 02:25 PM

A summary of articles found in the Winter 2013 JPAM, vol. 32, no. 1

Do Child Development Accounts Promote Account Holding, Saving, and Asset Accumulation for Children's Future? Evidence from a Statewide Randomized Experiment

The Expected Impact of State Immigration Legislation on Labor Market Outcomes

Intensifying Social Exchange Relationships in Public Organizations: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment

The Effects of Foreclosure Counseling for Distressed Homeowners

External Validity in Policy Evaluations That Choose Sites Purposively

Point/Counterpoint

Policy Retrospectives

Professional Practice

Notes on the APPAM Moscow Conference

Book Review

 

Do Child Development Accounts Promote Account Holding, Saving, and Asset Accumulation for Children's Future? Evidence from a Statewide Randomized Experiment
Yunju Nam, Youngmi Kim, Margaret Clancy, Robert Zager and Michael Sherraden

piggy_bankSaving for a child’s future may have long-term positive impacts. Evidence suggests that household assets, especially financial, have a positive association with a child’s educational attainment and other developmental outcome. Despite the potential benefits of asset holding, many families have little savings, especially those headed by members of racial and ethnic minority groups and individuals with low levels of education.

 

The Expected Impact of State Immigration Legislation on Labor Market Outcomes
Julie L. Hotchkiss and Myriam Quispe-Agnoli

border_crossingIn response to the dramatic rise in the number of unauthorized immigrants to the United States, every state has passed some form of immigration legislation. These laws appear to be predicated on a belief that unauthorized immigrants impose greater costs than benefits to state and local communities, including the labor market. The purpose of this paper is to examine some evidence on what workers should expect if the immigration legislation is successful in eliminating undocumented workers from states' labor markets.

Intensifying Social Exchange Relationships in Public Organizations: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment
Morten Jakobsen and Simon Calmar Andersen

nodeIn accordance with social exchange theory, prominent streams of management research emphasize the importance of reciprocal exchange relationships between organizations and their employees. When employees perceive themselves as supported by the organization, they reciprocate with increased work motivation. However, we do not know how this knowledge can be developed into management initiatives that increase public employees’ perceived support, because severe endogeneity problems make it difficult to estimate the effect of organizational support on employee commitment outside the laboratory. Yet, a subgroup analysis shows a positive treatment effect when the employees’ local front-line managers felt less supported prior to the intervention.

The Effects of Foreclosure Counseling for Distressed Homeowners
J. Michael Collins and Maximilian D. Schmeiser

sign_of_the_times_foreclosureIn the face of the housing market downturn of the late 2000s, policymakers promoted third-party mortgage default counseling as a way to help people at risk of losing their homes to avoid foreclosure. Using a unique data set of monthly loan payments remitted to investors combined with administrative data from a national counseling agency, this study estimates the effects of default counseling on the probability that troubled mortgage borrowers will lose their homes to foreclosure. Borrowers are actually more likely to miss loan payments after receiving counseling, but the probability of losing a home to foreclosure drops after counseling, suggesting that counseling policies may be beneficial during housing crises.

External Validity in Policy Evaluations That Choose Sites Purposively
Robert B. Olsen, Larry L. Orr, Stephen H. Bell and Elizabeth A. Stuart

sky_craneEvaluations of the impact of social programs are often carried out in multiple sites, such as school districts, housing authorities, local TANF offices, or One-Stop Career Centers. Most evaluations select sites purposively following a process that is nonrandom. Unfortunately, purposive site selection can produce a sample of sites that is not representative of the population of interest for the program. In this paper, we propose a conceptual model of purposive site selection. We begin with the proposition that a purposive sample of sites can usefully be conceptualized as a random sample of sites from some well-defined population, for which the sampling probabilities are unknown and vary across sites. This proposition allows us to derive a formal, yet intuitive, mathematical expressions for the bias in the pooled impact estimate when sites are selected purposively. This formula helps us to better understand the consequences of selecting sites purposively, and the factors that contribute to the bias

Point/Counterpoint

The Role of Economic Factors and Economic Support in Preventing and Escaping from Intimate Partner Violence
Jennifer L. Matjasko, Phyllis Holditch Niolon and Linda Anne Valle

crime_sceneIntimate partner violence (IPV) includes physical violence, sexual violence, threats of physical or sexual violence, stalking, and psychological aggression by a current or former intimate partner. An ecological framework is often used to organize risk factors for IPV at the individual, relationship, community, and societal levels.

What Does Research Suggest are the Primary Risk and Protective Factors for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and What is the Role of Economic Factors?
Eve S. Buzawa and Carl G. Buzawa

stressThere is a well-established body of research on the risk factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV). Risk should be understood in several dimensions: (1) the nature of abuse, (2) the severity and frequency of abusive behavior, and (3) the generality of violence and psychopathology.

 


Different Types of Intimate Partner Violence Likely Require Different Types of Approaches to Prevention: A Response to Buzawa and Buzawa

Jennifer L. Matjasko, Phyllis Holditch Niolon and Linda Anne Valle

Buzawa and Buzawa assert that there are different typologies of intimate partner violence (IPV) defined by the extent to which the violence is part of a general pattern of coercive control. They center their discussion on batterers, who are understood to be responsible for the most severe forms of abuse and injury. Economic factors are believed to be “only a weak predictor of violence” in these cases. Thus, they argue that, in the face of severe budget constraints, there is a need to focus on the chronically violent offender and support-coordinated services for IPV victims. We agree that there are different types of IPV distinguishable by the extent to which the violence is occurring within a pattern of general coercive control and that each type has different risk and protective factors. We also agree economic factors interact with other factors in complex ways and vary in the extent to which they predict different types of IPV. However, we argue economic factors should not be ignored as an important strategy in preventing situational couple violence (SCV) and helping victims to escape from intimate terrorists (ITs). Relying on response (rather than prevention) strategies, such as coordinated community response—for which there is limited evidence of effectiveness—is unlikely to significantly impact rates of all types of IPV.

Intimate Partner Violence—Response to Matjasko et al
Eve S. Buzawa and Carl G. Buzawa

We do not contest the points raised by Matjasko et al. in their assessment of risk factors. However, we believe there are several key issues where our opinions may differ. First, are our relative priorities as to how resources intended to intervene in cases of interpersonal violence are allocated. The realistic goal is how to prioritize finite and typically woefully inadequate resources. Matjesko et. al. focus on the need to alleviate poverty because statistically poor people are more plagued by intimate partner violence (IPV). Allocation of economic assistance to victims beyond providing short-term shelters may pose devilishly difficult dilemmas in developing a legally and ethically proper strategy to allocate scarce funds. For example, should funds be limited to victims whose cases reach the attention of the criminal justice system? If so, then the majority of victims who simply leave successfully or get a divorce, rather than contact the police, would not qualify. Alternatively, if formal prosecution of offenders is not required, then how would the authenticity of claims for support be determined?

Policy Retrospectives

Spurring Job Creation in Response to Severe Recessions: Reconsidering Hiring Credits
David Neumark

great_depressionThe adverse effects of the Great Recession on U.S. labor markets are hardly news. The author considers policies that could be used to boost job growth during and after a severe recession by changing labor demand incentives for employers or labor supply incentives for workers. Specifically, a focus on subsidies to employers to hire workers (hiring credits), and subsidies to individuals to enter the labor market (worker subsidies, in the form of the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, in the United States). Both types of policies have been used extensively in the past, at both the federal and state level, although a central motivation of hiring credits targeting the disadvantaged can also be viewed as redistributing jobs, and the EITC has the explicit distributional goal—quite distinct from job creation—of increasing incomes of low-income families.

Professional Practice

Open Government Initiatives: Challenges of Citizen Participation
Angela M. Evans and Adriana Campos

light_bulbMuch of the work in open government, both in its implementation and research, has emphasized data and the information and communications technologies supporting their access, interoperability, and usability. This data-driven focus has not been proven to significantly increase citizen understanding of the complexities of issues and policies or their participation in relevant policy deliberations. If the primary goal of open government is to engage citizens, then current initiatives must be re-evaluated and new approaches explored—shifting beyond data delivery. Releasing volumes of data on a Web site without background on why and how it is collected, how it is organized, and its intended use, leaves citizens with herculean tasks of determining its relevance and reliability.

Does Measuring Performance Lead to Better Performance?
Mary Bryna Sanger

measuring_tapePerformance measurement—documenting whether an organization is reaching its goals—has become a growth industry in the United States. But it is not clear what the current vogue for performance measurement has actually produced, especially for municipal governments. In fact, our research suggests that performance measurement rarely leads to improved government performance or more efficient and accountable municipal management.

Notes on the APPAM-Moscow Conference

Improving the Quality of Public Services: A Multinational Conference on Public Management
Douglas J. Besharov, Alexey Barabashev, Karen Baehler and Jacob Alex Klerman

In June 2011, APPAM, in association with Moscow's National Research University—Higher School of Economics, and the University of Maryland School of Public Policy, held an international research conference in Moscow on “Improving the Quality of Public Services and Public Management.” Attendees came from more than 22 nations, including Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, Moldova, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Ninety-two papers were presented on public management and its ability to improve the quality of public services. The most common topics were performance measurement and management, citizen participation, and transparency and anti-corruption efforts in post-socialist countries. Other topics included e-government, inter-agency collaboration, program evaluation, public–private partnerships, privatization, performance contracting, leadership, administrative modernization, networks, and the continuing relevance of the New Public Management paradigm. Many of the papers also explored the role of civil society in post-socialist countries.

Book Review

Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010, by Charles Murray
Gary Burtless

 

« Back

 
 
 
Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
NEW ADDRESS! 1100 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 650 Washington, DC 20005
Phone: 202.496.0130 | Fax: 202.496.0134
Twitter Facebook LinkedIn Subscribe to me on YouTube

Home|About APPAM|Membership|Public Policy News|Conference & Events|Publications| Awards|Careers & Education|Members Only

Web site design and web site development by Americaneagle.com

© 2016 Association for Public Policy Analysis & Management. All Rights Reserved.
Site Map | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | Events | Add Your Event