Featured in the Spring 2013 issue of the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Irene Henriques, Bryan Husted, and Ivan Monteil compare the environmental performance of voluntary environmental programs (VEP) with different attributes. Using club theory, the authors contend that the differential performance of VEPs is due in part to their specific design attributes that will either enhance or diminish their ability to improve both targeted and untargeted environmental impacts. We analyze two VEPs in Mexico, the global standard ISO 14001 and the local standard Clean Industry. These two VEPs differ in the stringency of the standards and in their ability to sanction noncompliant facilities. These differences ensure that firms adopting the local standard are less likely to shirk their responsibilities and enhance potential spillover effects on untargeted environmental emissions.
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