Michael Marmot highlighted residential segregation in Baltimore between Upton/Druid and Roland park. In Upton/Druid, half are single parent families, its median household income is 17,000, 90% did not go on to college. However, in Roland park, median house hold income is 90,000, two parents’ families are 90 percent, and 70 percent complete college. These differences in socio-economic characteristics are associated with health outcomes. He shows lots of results from empirical studies, such as education or is associated with life expectancy; wealth is associated with Infant mortality; socioeconomic-status is associated with cognitive development; preschool is associated with better health outcomes. He emphasized that welfare spending improves health and reduces inequalities.
Anita Charlesworth from Health Foundation cited three important social determinants of health outcomes including work poverty and job insecurity, housing and cost and insecurity, and mental resilience for young people. In addition, she mentioned three primary prevention needs to consider including reinvigorate smoking policy, comprehensive obesity strategy, and tracking social isolation. Finally, she emphasized access to inequalities in access to mental health services, physical health with mental health problems, and access to social care for the elderly.
Kate Pickett from University of York criticized neo-liberal economic approach for health disparities. She mentioned that there are out of balance between actual distribution of wealth in U.S. Although we know the determinants of health inequalities are health care and individual behaviors, health disparities were not mitigated. She emphasized local actions to reduce health inequalities. The equality trust needs to actively fund for research and co-work on inequality studies.